What Is Hybrid?
Hybrids are called all engine systems using different physical mechanisms ensuring motion. Nowadays this term is used basically regarding to vehicles powered by electrical system and internal combustion engine. Hybrid cars are only a step towards completely electric cars.
By idea hybrid cars should combine the quality and advantages of these two technologies:
- internal combustion engine
- electric motors
But we shall not forget that they also combine and their disadvantages.
The universal electric motors are capable to work with AC and DC and compared to internal combustion engine they can be immortal when are properly used. There is no need of maintenance, nor oil, nor fuel. The advantages of characteristics and construction in contrast to ICE are more than bigger.
But why are they not popular? We have big technology problem – there is no good technology for caring and storing the electric energy. The batteries we have at that moment are compromise between weight and energy density. All of the world companies have invested resources in developing batteries with large energy density and low price.
Hybrid cars are classified in few basic types:
Types regarding to motive:
PARALLEL HYBRID SYSTEMS
– in this system there is an internal combustion engine and electric motor both connected to mechanical transmission. The electric motor is mainly used for accelerator, starter or charging the batteries (like alternator). The advantage of this system is the increased power for brief moment (bigger acceleration) and greater agility. The disadvantages are-complicated construction, power loss when charging and also the two engines must rotate simultaneously.
– Here the internal combustion engine runs a generator on optimal rate and the generator supplies an electric motor. The main advantage here is the simple mechanical structure of the transmission and the optimum use of the internal combustion engine. The main disadvantages are less total power (the peak power is equal to the electric motor`s power only, not the both motors power). In addition the motors must work together all the time.
– This hybrid has the characteristics of the both parallel and serial hybrid systems. Via special construction the motion may be transferred to the wheels in few ways: by the internal combustion engine only, by the electric motor only, by the internal combustion engine which drives generator for the electric motor, or the engine can be totally turned off. This construction gives opportunity for optimum use of serial and parallel systems characteristics and allows using bigger internal combustion engine, which can be used when a greater power is needed or on long trip, where can behave.
Types regarding the use of hybridity:
– This is engine which can work either only by electric motor, or only by internal combustion engine, or using both in same time.
HYBRIDS INCREASING THE POWER
– This is bigger internal combustion engine, which has sealer electric motor mounted between the ICE and the transmission. It is used for starting engine or for adding extra horse power when needed.
– This is small electric motor used for starting ICE only and eventually to drive the air conditioner. Its advantage is that the vehicle can shut down and start the ICE in some situations (like long stay on traffic lights) for fuel saving.
– This is full hybrid which batteries can be charged from external current source. Like this, when having enough powerful batteries, this car can run only using electric motor and in this way to become a fully electric vehicle.